Reparations Symposium #2 Part 2

next you're in for a treat this sister's

name was brought up in our last

symposium at Malcolm X college system

Zakia Muhammad stood and made a bold


why isn't Alice hemming speaking on

reparations so what I did I went and did

some research

I miss Hammonds and come to find out

that I know one of her nieces very well

and when I read about this black woman

it made me again so proud to be a black

woman a lot of the work that she has

done she I really don't feel like she's

gotten a credit for your Facebook's

alive because we need the city of

Chicago to know how the first

reparations came about in the city of

Chicago see sometimes there are those

that's behind the scene is doing the

work but then there are goals that stand

out in front to receive the credit but

the truth will be told this day she was

born in Clarksdale Mississippi the late

Frank in Lula Barbie she is the third

child of eleven siblings and now is the

oldest living sibling she is the mother

of three Doris five grandchildren and

she was employed at the United States

Postal Service for 17 years serving as a

serving in the capacity of a clerk and a

relief supervisor but in a midst of

being a mother she substituted at the

Chicago Public in the Chicago Public

School System she was a professor at the

Carruthers Center for inner-city studies

taught at Olive Harvey College she has

her undergraduate and graduate degree in

inner-city studies from the Carruthers

center of inner-city studies which is

this great building that we're in she

has made contributions and participated

in sharing her research findings on

numerous occasions presented a

fact-finding paper at the reparations

conference for Alderman Dorothy Tillman

she compiled historical findings on JP

mortgage and testified at the City

Council Finance Committee before ed work

on behalf of Hardiman Dorothy Tillman

she participated in research funding for

the transatlantic slave trade

commission's of Chicago directed at the

Carruthers Center for inner-city studies

and she contributed to African American

slavery indenture and resistance in

Illinois 17 22 1864 written and edited

by Toni ko stony with contributions by

Stanley young Isaiah Johnson and Alice B

Hammond I would like to introduce to you

all miss Alice hemming


thank you I've been working a long time

and I thank you for recognizing that I

want to ask permission of the elders in

the house to speak this evening now I

want to ask the spirit of my ancestors

and the African guys to come and go with

me as I opened this work and I'm going

to share with you Chicago's ties to

slavery now my good friend Tony custody'

did work earlier on I'm gonna deal with


this is Chicago 1832 they became a town

in 1833 with 350 residents that were

4170 residents in 1837 when Chicago was

incorporated Indiana I mean there were

no I entered the Union in 1882 I'm going

to take you out and bring you back in so

the discovery of America and its

rounding of the Cape of the Good Hope in

Africa to India and the word the two

greatest and most important events in

recorded history to mankind according to

Adam Smith off the wealth of a nation

but from our perspective Africans and

all other indigenous people we would say

war war and Wars conquest destruction of

Africans and other indigenous peoples

lives culture and resources Smith

continues and he says that the

importance of this discovery of America

lays not in the precious metals it

provided but in the new and

inexhaustible market it afforded

European commodities one of the

principal effects was that to raise the

mercantile system to a degree of

splendor and glory which it could never

have otherwise attained it gave rise to

a numerous increases in world trade and

that world trade was the selling of

Africans in the transatlantic slave

trade that was the splendor and the

glory another point he talks about the

could European commodities and from my

understanding Europe had nothing so the

land was not there they belonged to the

indigenous people the gold Africa and

Mexico the sugar came into Europe via

the air trade tobacco was indigenous to

United States rice and indigo and cotton

was long in Africa long before it was

anyplace else okay that's Eric Williams

African the African slave trade I'm

quoting some of these Europeans in 18th

century 19th century the first principle

and foundation of all the rests the

mainspring of the Machine which set

every wheel in motion first the waygu

said that and he's also the publisher

and author of the African trade and the

the great pillar and support of the

British plantation trade in America 1745

the African slave trade for 274 years

England prosecuted the slave trade this

is 18th century report and I mentioned

India because Adam Smith says the two

greatest things that ever happened was

to get to America and take the Indians

wealth so they took 2 trillion from

India the slave trade allowed us to

plunder India I have the Smith's two

important events right in fact trade was

the foundation of the commercial wealth

of England the gains were so enormous

that they form the foundation of the

present credit system England is

indebted to the African slave trade for

the boom of history a bond early proof

of history abundantly proves and if

that's taught that this time he's

talking about the population when they

had to look at the doomsday records when

a king was coming in and that was 1086

they only had a million people and by

1861 they had 20 million okay so he says

that and through this means her of her

immense Commerce generated chiefly and

controlled by her cotton manufacturers

her floating capital made its productive

and that's mr. George and that's the

1820 1861 awesome now you will see

America the colonies here and I use the

northern colonies because they were able

to trade in slaves and you see the whole

empty area has to be filled in and that

is filled in off of Africa people okay

colonial America I race slavery and the

troubling history of America's

universities crate Steven Weiser the

very first slave trader

of these coasts of America and Boston

Philadelphia New York etc money made is

used to set up banking systems in

financing Philadelphia became the home

of the National Bank charter with

branches and cities I think about 25 of

the major cities trading routes this is

Bray Hammond banking in politics from

American Revolution to the Civil War

Philadelphia in New York with a major

financiers of the internal slave trade

and the cotton trade which were the

driving forces of the nation before 1837

market crash afterwards New York took

the rim after the American Revolution a

problem approximately eight hundred and

seven thousand Africans were sold from

the southeastern into the newly opening

Southwest through the internal slave

trade survey states entered the Union to

satisfy this need for the developing

plantations roughly one roughly once

every three point five minutes ten hours

a day 300 days a year

for forty years an African was being

bought or sold inactive in the

antebellum South according to Harvard

Goethe 1975 slavery in the South

industries in the noise The Syndicate

a system of partnerships and other

business relations existed among factors

in various towns and cities in the South

the North abroad and abroad which

facilitated the movement of cotton and

other commodities from place to place as

as conditions or whims dictated and that

comes from King Cotton Harold Whitman

now I have to bring you into Chicago

your coming but I had to lay this out

because this allowed Chicago to be what

contributed to New York's rise as a

dominant port and financial force there

were three things after the war of 1812

England had all of her pent-up Goods and

she dumped him on New York number to New

York dominated the cotton trade and

number three the Erie Canal opened the

Northwest region for

another aspect of colonial development

and New York was instrumental in

supplying the needs of the northwestern

regions moving into the heartland of the

nation particularly Chicago the 10,000

this comes from the Arthur fauna I was I

just stop for a minute I was sitting on

my porch where I used to study yet in

the spirit got all over me and told me

to go to the bookstore and I was like

okay I didn't go a couple of weeks he

came back and he just kind of sit on my

shoulder and I got up and I went and I

said now why did I come over here

business and slavery was on the Shelf

waiting for me New York became the

Emporium Emporium of the nation finance

the finance incentive financing was

centered there through the major foreign

houses the English house the bearing

brothers the William and James brothers

August bill might was agent for the

Rothschilds as well as hundreds of

others okay the 19th century white gold

threats of cod and Spartan wealth

spawned the wealth of this nation and

its developments gene Dan tail says to

ignore cotton is to neglect the power of

economics money and profits in the

American history Americans purchasing

power abroad rose from America's

commodity exports but what commodities

could America offer which would permit

it to expand imports from 65 million in

1816 to 316 million by 1860 fortunately

the United States had one great staple

cotton in 1815 the United States

exported exported 83 million pounds of

cotton valued at seventeen million five

hundred thousand dollars by 1860 the

quality had risen from seven trillion

seven seven I never figured I'd deal

with these kind of figures but seven

trillion six hundred and seven hundred

and sixty eight million pounds worth

which was nearly at one hundred

ninety-two million dollars okay okay

here is an apparatus that I set up my

grandson did this to did this for me and

so I what I wanted to say these are all

forces came most of this was came out of

out of the cotton industry so you had

banking setup in 1782 in north of the

Bank of North America 1784 the Bank of

New York and others I'm just jumping

with this because I had a few minutes

1790 the first bank of the United States

was chartered and it lost his charter

and when it lost that charter Bank of

America and all of those picked upstairs

and came in in 1816 the second bank of

the United States was started in 1827

the consolidators of planters League in

Louisiana started because you know like

they're fighting now the Republicans

always fought the Democrats so if the

Democrats what a debate Republicans

gotta bang so then we look at the missus

DeLand companies for plantations and

mississippi Boston Mississippi New York

this was the indigenous people's laying

right supporting personnel and personal

in the personal in the slave trade

internal slave trade were bankers you

had to have the not money promissory


you had factoring houses you had lawyers

to negotiate confusions and conflicts

you had doctors because we were examined

as they moved us from the east to the

west we were examined so if you were

sick you were valuable you know six

seven hundred dollars so you know you

were property so if you were sick they

tried to get you in if you were if they

could not get you well that used you in

the medical experiments and once you

died you became the cadavers for the

beginning of the medical school in the

south as well as the north okay doctors

who didn't you had to get dressed up

once you got in the head to have clothes

they had to feed you to add blacksmiths

for change they had insurance companies

they had you know railroads and shipping

agents you had the slavery use that's

collateral for further investment

opportunities between 1820 and 1860 the

average revenue

new earned for trafficking slaves

annually was twelve point three million

dollars those are the sales and 1850 it

was more than seventeen point eight

million this has nothing to do with the

cotton and how it's going to be


this is just moving us okay so there are

other things that we can add people

slavery was slavery but it was

anti-slavery it wasn't against slavery

anti-slavery Wilmot Proviso senator New

York and that was a big fight he says no

no no no no we won't take slaves into

new territory not because they didn't

want it but they want to always maintain

a balance of power right so the and

moving the cotton it took sixty six

million people sixty six million people

were employed in transporting the cotton

transfer and cotton from the plantations

to the market is final destination the

ship tonnage that was used and moving

cotton from here to England was two

million okay so you had textile

industries came all of your clothing

manufacturers all of your wholesaler the

merchants the jobbers the retailers the

country stores the peddlers itineraries

clothing stores Lehman Brothers is named

in Alabama they came in in 1830 they

were through the Alabama and this is how

they function

they ran cotton for the Civil War and

after that they went to New York and set

up the Cotton Exchange right we have the

local this was a local national

international bankers merchants cotton

speculators factors factors manage the

purchases and sales of the goods for the

plantations and cotton we have involved

in England because this is the

Industrial Revolution we have England we

have continental Europe we have the

Northeast we have shippers and Ravens

and Ja Rule's and patronage stores now

England received eighty percent of the

cotton and the Northeast received twenty

percent then you got the wilderness I

got to keep moving because I don't have

that much time we have the wilderness we

had nice national roads we had flat


steamboats they had canals they had

railroads they had shippers some of the

shippers were Jeremy Thompson in New

York Samuel corner News New York C

Vanderbilt New York friar insurances

than the others okay now the influence

of the south on New York's economic life

started at the port and proceeded uptown

touching every form of business activity

on its leg New York received 40% from at

40 cent from every dollar made of raw

cotton from the double site and cotton

had a double side cotton left as a raw

material it returned as threads and

clothes and threats and material thus

that money that bringing the cotton back

in that revenue went to the government


the Erie Canal are we coming home the

air canal the Illinois Michigan canal

and the Illinois Central Railroad were

three important avenues that breathe

life into this Prairie we're standing

here on now Illinois

each of these transportation protection

systems added a new dimension to this

unfolding landscape connecting the

nation it was really trying to connect

the nation's water raised from waterways

from the east all the way in to get into

the Mississippi River so they would go

straight down and they finally did that

with the Illinois Central Railroad

but these connections they brought

people this was a Chicago this was a

colony and they brought people in that

trading networks a particular focus was

on the Irish immigrants and they poured

in from Europe and to what were called

the Chicago colonies to supply the

needed labor and building the Illinois

Michigan canal okay those labor camps

became villages and towns here is a

gateway to the canal here you see it

coming up New York going up the Hudson

River and coming all the way out to

Buffalo entering the Erie Canal and

ended up in Chicago Erie spurred the

first great westward moving movements of

Chicago settlers right and there was a

policy in Liverpool and they said keep

packing them on keep them moving right

and there's a whole chapter

that discusses them as human freight so

New York kept pace with moving these

immigrants into the interior or the

north western region the call at the

Liverpool port was to pack them in New

York keeps them moving write complaints

world that oversees communities were

shifting their burdens of poppers and

imbeciles and criminals to New York

Philip palm wrote in his horn wrote in

his diary in 1836 all Europe is coming

across the waters all that part at least

who cannot make a living at home and

what shall we do with them they increase

our attacks they eat our bread they

encumber they encumber our streets and

not one in 20 is competent to keep

themselves Albany in New York he thought

that this was a pretty fat assessment

but many because many of them were sent

in here into Chicago to build the canals

and the railroads they were Irish they

were Germans named SWE's they was

Britain British so the employment of

these emigrants would continue into

Western development and we got five

minutes this is the picture I tried to

find one you know the real horrendous

looking ones they want you to pay for I

couldn't do that so this is a picture of

them the Irish they're looking for work

they're hungry these are another group

of immigrants but these immigrants they

came by way Albany says that some of

them came over a little bit more

comfortable even in that conference you

know what brought them over the corns

from Africa the goal of the Guinea serve

Africa the name Guinea comes from Africa

okay so they still use our money to get

here the Erie Canal

it was an inter-regional network of

prophets Daniel Lord described it to the

nation when they were saying the

proceeds of the southern crops came

north simply to pay southern death but

every year the value of merchandise

going west over the Erie Canal the New

York Central

an Erie Railroad exceeded that coming

East over the same route by 100 million

dollars this is a puzzle to many people

he said who do not reflect upon the

course of trader discomfort country they

looked upon their numerous excesses of

the West West found Freight as proof of

an extravagance and unfounded in the

width but he says it's simply it is

simply the process by which this section

gets paid for the products which we sell

to the south these debts

captain pays the northern shippers takes

them to Europe brings back the proceeds

which are distributed by northern

merchants and factors to the creditors

of the south throughout the length and

breadth of the nation so everything was

under connected everything out past that

everything was interconnected here

Illinois and Michigan canal spanned a

hundred miles so this area was built it

was an immigrant it was an immigrant

colony and they brought of all in and

they lined him up and when they did then

hundred miles what they were doing was

setting up communities and they would go

work and build and they would stay there

and now they got communities that they

don't want you in but they those

communities came off of you right we had

three months over 100 miles quad or ten

to twelve Canal cities were born between

those you get Ottawa back here because

they will always strengthen it to that

Illinois Michigan River I'm flying now I

don't know what's the time but I know we

we got three minutes oh okay three

minutes financing Illinois Michigan I'm

gonna move on because this one I want

you all to see at the bottom no they

want me three minutes I give it to him

the cautery sea currents in Mississippi

the first paper currents in Mississippi

was actually a copy receipt and when

they finished the card they harvested

and they took it to the gin and that

receipt circulated as money the last one

I want you to see because it is the

antebellum bond

and it came out in 1993 the New York

Times and so what the New York Times is

saying is that they're seeking a

thirteen point eight million dollars

from 152 years ago they go to

Mississippi every time they get a new

governor and they ask them for the money

because they defrauded on their debt in

1835 when the market the world market

crash so they still once they mind you

for all of you that think we don't

deserve reparation they still ask okay

they're still asking for their money

they say the bank failed in the United

States financial panic of 1837 in the

market the cotton was that because they

held the cotton off the market because

they didn't have food in Europe

Mississippi quit paying their interest

now they want to know can they get paid

dr. Charles Barron that's the Baron

brothers Grant is a descendant of the

Baron banking dynasty of the 19th

century that's old Mississippi bars and

written originally so they say you got

the casinos now can we get paid that's

it I'm out

thank you thank you thank you she went

through there pretty fast but I learned

a lot because as I look around this room

I see cotton everywhere